|Characteristic Test||Proximate analysis - Moisture,Volatile matter,Ash and Fixed Carbon|
|Testing Type||Chemical Analysis|
|Product Type||Minerals & Ores|
|Service Type||Process Characterization, Standardization|
|Design Type||Quality Design, Experimental Design|
The calorific value of a fuel is the quantity of heat produced by its combustion - at constant pressure and under "normal" conditions.
Proximate analysis indicates the percentage by weight of the Fixed Carbon, Volatiles, Ash, and Moisture Content in coal. The amounts of fixed carbon and volatile combustible matter directly contribute to the heating value of coal. Fixed carbon acts as a main heat generator during burning. High volatile matter content indicates easy ignition of fuel. The ash content is important in the design of the furnace grate, combustion volume, pollution control equipment and ash handling systems of a furnace.
The ultimate analysis indicates the various elemental chemical constituents such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulphur, etc. It is useful in determining the quantity of air required for combustion and the volume and composition of the combustion gases. This information is required for the calculation of flame temperature and the flue duct design etc.
Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. It represents the bulk mineral matter after carbon, oxygen, sulfur and water (including from clays) has been driven off during combustion. Analysis is fairly straightforward, with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight.
The behavior of the coal''s ash residue at high temperature is a critical factor in selecting coals for steam power generation. Most furnaces are designed to remove ash as a powdery residue. Coal which has ash that fuses into a hard glassy slag known as clinker is usually unsatisfactory in furnaces as it requires cleaning. However, furnaces can be designed to handle the clinker, generally by removing it as a molten liquid. Ash fusion temperatures are determined by viewing a moulded specimen of the coal ash through an observation window in a high-temperature furnace.
|Testing Type||Flash Point, Moisture/Sludge Content, Interfacial Test|
|Physical Parameter Test||Density/Velocity, Flash/Pour Point, Colour/Appearance|
|Electrical Parameter Test||Dielectric Strength|
|Type of Analysis Needed||Moisture, PCB, Dissolved Gas|
|Place of Testing||Laboratory|
Transformer oils are subject to electrical and mechanical stresses while a transformer or other electrical distribution equipment is in operation. The analysis of insulating oils provides information about the oil, but also enables the detection of other possible problems, including contact arcing, aging insulating paper and other latent faults and is an indispensable part of a cost-efficient electrical maintenance program.
Though the failure risk of a transformer and other oil-filled electrical equipment is small, when failures occur, they inevitably lead to high repair costs, long downtime and possible safety risks. By accurately monitoring the condition of the oil, suddenly occurring faults can be discovered in time and outages can potentially be avoided.Properties of Transformer or Insulating Oil
Some specific parameters of transformer or insulating oil should be considered to determine the serviceability of that oil.
?????????????????? Physical Parameters - Colour and Appearance, Density, Inter Facial Tension, Viscosity, Flash Point and Pour Point.
?????????????????? Chemical Parameters - Water Content, Corrosive Sulphur, Acidity, Sludge Content.
?????????????????? Electrical Parameters - Dielectric Strength, Specific Resistance, Dielectric Dissipation Factor.
?????????????????? Dissolved gas analysis
?????????????????? Furan analysis
?????????????????? PCB analysis